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A Basic Guide to Different Academic Writing Citation Styles

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A citation is a way of giving credit to individuals for their creative and intellectual works that an essay writer utilized to support his research. It can also be used to locate particular sources and combat plagiarism. Typically, a citation can include the author's name, date, and location of the publishing company, journal title, or DOI (Digital Object Identifier).

A citation style dictates the information necessary for a citation and how the information is ordered, as well as punctuation and another formatting.

Let us discuss some of the citation styles used in most of the articles written by researchers in their academic careers.

The APA Citation

APA (American Psychological Association) Style originated in 1929 when a group of psychologists, anthropologists, and business managers convened and sought to establish a simple set of procedures or style rules. It would codify the many components of scientific writing to increase the ease of reading comprehension.

In-text Citations

The style used in In-text citations consists of the last name of the author, followed by the year, in which the concerned source was published, for example (Perkins, 2004).

We can also include a direct quotation from the text as well. Please consider this example:

“Economic hit men (EHMs) are highly paid professionals who cheat countries around the globe out of trillions of dollars” (Perkins, 2004, p.2).

Bibliography

Some examples of bibliographic notations used in APA style of citations are:

Material Type Reference /Bibliography
A book Baxter, C. (1997). Race equality in health care and education. Philadelphia: Ballière Tindall.
An article in a journal with DOI An article in a journal with DOIGaudio, J. L., & Snowdon, C. T. (2008). Spatial cues are more salient than color cues in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus Oedipus) reversal learning. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 122, 441-444. DOI: 10.1037/0735-7036.122.4.441
Government Publications or other formal reports U.S. Department of Justice. (2006, September 10). Trends in violent victimization by age, 1973-2005. Retrieved from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/glance/vage.htm

MLA style of Citation

MLA (Modern Language Association) style for documentation is widely used in the humanities, especially in writing on language and literature. MLA style features brief parenthetical citations in the text keyed to an alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of the work.

In-text Citations

The style of in-text citations in any assignment or article simply uses the last name of the author at the end of the fact that is required to be cited, for example (Perkins).

We can also include a direct quotation from the text as well. Please consider this example:

“Economic hit men (EHMs) are highly paid professionals who cheat countries around the globe out of trillions of dollars” (Perkins, p.2).

Bibliography

Some examples of the MLA style of citations are given below.

Material Type Reference/Bibliography
A book Uzawa, Hirofumi. Economic Theory and Global Warming. Cambridge UP, 2003.
An article in a journal with DOI Milken, Michael, et al. “On Global Warming and Financial Imbalances.” New Perspectives Quarterly, vol. 23, no. 4, 2006, p. 63. , DOI: 10.1126/science.1065007

Chicago Style of Citation

Chicago is a documentation style that has been published by the Chicago University Press since 1906. This citation style incorporates rules of grammar and punctuation common in American English.

In-text Citations

The In-text Citation is done in the Chicago Style of Citation by the use of footnotes. Any fact or figure is usually allocated a number or letter. Moreover, details are given at the bottom of the page where it is cited. It is also done by the use of the “Insert Footnote” option available in most word processing software like Microsoft Word.

Bibliography

Material Type Footnote and Bibliography
A book
  • Note Style: 1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.
  • Duplicate Note: 2. Pollan, Omnivore's Dilemma, 3.
  • Bibliography: Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.
An article in a journal with DOI
  • Note Style: 1. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010, DOI:10.1086/599247.
  • Duplicate Note: Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 439.
  • Bibliography: Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. DOI:10.1086/599247

There are various other citation styles, so if you get confused while writing your essay then you can simply get help from a writing service provider. Simply ask them to write my essay and specify the deadline as per the assignment’s submission date. This will help you to get a properly formatted and well-cited essay.

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